Wednesday, 28 November 2012

(HEALTH) GENERAL STUDIES IAS 2013


The standard method used by nutritionists to estimate our minimum daily protein requirement is to multiply the body weight in kilograms by .8, or weight in pounds by .37. This is the number of grams of protein that should be the daily minimum.



Contrary to popular belief that the egg is something to avoid, numerous research and long term studies have shown that eggs are a great dietary source of many fundamental (e.g. protein, choline, cholesterol) and non-fundamental (e.g. lutein, zeaxanthin) components that are essential for optimal health.  In fact, many in the fore-front of anti-aging research believe that moderate egg consumption of one per day should be an integral part of a complete anti-aging diet. 
Nutrient (unit)
Whole Egg
Egg White
Egg Yolk
Calories (kcal)
75
17
59
Protein (g)
6.25
3.52
2.78
Total lipid (g)
5.01
0
5.12
Total carbohydrate (g)
0.6
0.3
0 .3
Fatty acids (g)
4.33
0
4.33
Saturated fat (g)
1.55
0
1.55
Monounsaturated fat (g)
1.91
0
1.91
Polyunsaturated fat (g)
0.68
0
0.68
Cholesterol (mg)
213
0
213
Thiamin (mg)
0.031
0.002
0.028
Riboflavin (mg)
0.254
0.151
0.103
Niacin (mg)
0.036
0.031
0.005
Vitamin B6 (mg)
0.070
0.001
0.0069
Folate (mcg)
23.5
1.0
22.5
Vitamin B12 (mcg)
0.50
0.07
0.43
Vitamin A (IU)
317.5
0
317
Vitamin E (mg)
0.70
0
0.70
Vitamin D (IU)
24.5
0
24.5
Choline (mg)
215.1
0.42
214.6
Biotin (mcg)
9.98
2.34
7.58
Calcium, Ca (mg)
25
2
23
Iron, Fe (mg)
0.72
0.01
0.59
Magnesium, Mg (mg)
5
4
1
Copper, Cu (mg)
0.007
0.002
0.004
Iodine, I (mg)
0.024
0.001
0.022
Zinc, Zn (mg)
0.55
0
0.52
Sodium, Na (mg)
63
55
7
Manganese, Mn (mg)
0.012
0.001
0.012



How  to lose weight in a faster way.

If you add  these foods to your diet and do little exercise daily surely you can lose weight faster.

Apples
Apples are a good source of dietary fiber. Dietary fiber not only contributes to a healthy digestive system and reduced cholesterol, but it also benefits smart eaters by yielding no calories while keeping them satisfied.

ALMONDS
One particular favorite among some nutritionists is almonds, says Aragon. One ounce of this food contains only 167 calories, plus it packs roughly 6 g of protein and 3 g of fiber, both nutrients that can make you feel full. Furthermore, like apples, almonds are crunchy and require a lot of chewing, so they, too, can make you feel like you've eaten more than you actually did and keep you fuller longer.


Salmon
If you're uncertain about fish, there's no need to fear. Seafood can be part of a healthy diet. And there's some evidence that the fat in foods such as salmon can boost satiety levels, says Aragon

EGGS
Research has shown that eating eggs at breakfast can help you fight weight gain all day long. A study reported in 2008 in the "International Journal of Obesity" found that when dieters ate two eggs for breakfast for five days out of the week, they lost 65 percent more weight than dieters who consumed a bagel in the morning. Although protein is likely to fill you up whenever you eat it, some scientists suspect that having more in the morning can keep you feeling fuller all day long.

BEST BODY BUILDING FOODS

Whole Eggs
Whole eggs provide great protein content at 6 to 8 grams per egg, and are also rich in vitamins, zinc, iron and calcium making them one of the most complete muscle building foods out there.

Chicken Breast
For every 100 grams of chicken breast you get 30 grams of protein, with minimal fat. They are relatively inexpensive, easy to cook and can be served in many different styles. 
Water
This isn’t a food, but hydration is an important part of building muscle. Your body is 70 percent water and your muscle tissue is around 75 percent water. Keeping your muscles hydrated will help increase strength, increase energy levels and aid in proper digestion. Aim for about 0.6 ounces of water per pound of body weight.

Steel-cut Oats
Oatmeal is a healthy, filling grain, and the steel cut variety offers more flavor to the mix. Oats provide a blend of carbohydrates, fiber, protein, minerals and vitamins. The body digests steel-cut oats slowly, meaning you stay fuller for longer and maintain consistent blood sugar levels.

Pineapple
Pineapples are a rich source of a protein-digesting enzyme named bromelein. It’s also been shown to reduce muscle inflammation, making it a great addition to your post-workout meal
Spinach
There might have been a reason why Popeye ate so much spinach. Researchers at Rutgers University (2008) showed that the phytoecdysteroids contained in spinach may increase muscle growth up to 20 percent. The catch? You’d need to eat 2 pounds of spinach per day to see the same benefits.

Wild Salmon
Wild salmon is a potent source of protein that also packs a powerful punch of omega-3 fatty acids. This two-pronged attack will aid your lean-muscle dreams, and studies show it may help speed up your metabolism for faster results.

Cottage Cheese

Some might consider this a dessert, but it's also one of the best muscle-building foods you’ll find. Just one cup of cottage cheese can pack 28 grams of protein. And the snack is made up of a combination of fast and slow digestion proteins, so you can stave off hunger.

Almonds
Big things can come in small packages. Almonds provide a good source of protein and fat, but it’s their vitamin E that is most beneficial to your muscles. The powerful antioxidant fights free radicals and helps you recover quicker from your workouts.

GENERAL STUDIES IAS 2013


POWER GENERATION IN VARIOUS SECTORS IN INDIA



(HEALTH) GENERAL STUDIES IAS 2013


DAILY HEALTHY DIET

Protein
A major point of metabolic leverage for fat loss or muscle gain is to set protein at a minimum of 1.5 grams per kg of body weight to start. I don’t put a cap this number, so if you want to enjoy another chicken breast, go for it. Just remember, if you eat significantly more protein, you’re going to want to make sure you eat even fewer carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates
Most people looking to melt their muffin top do better reducing carbohydrates. Maximum is 1.5 grams per kg of bodyweight, so less is better in this case.

Fats
Set your fats to 0.75 of your bodyweight. The catch is that fat has 9 calories per gram, so the caloric amount will be different than it was for carbsandprotein.

1g fat = 9 Kcals
1g protein & carbohydrate=4kcal


For example, a 65 kg  person would break down as follows:

65 x 1.5 = 97.5 grams protein at 4 calories/gram = 600 calories

65 x 1.5 = 97.5 grams carbs(carbohydrate)  at 4 calories/gram = 600 calories

65 x 1.5 = 97.5 grams fat at 9 calories/gram = 878 calories

Total: 2078 calories


Vitamin A
This  fat-soluble  vitamin  is  necessary  for  clear  vision  in  dim  light,  and  for maintaining the integrity of epithelial tissues. In vitamin A deficiency, the white of the eye (conjunctiva) loses its luster and becomes dry. In severe vitamin A deficiency, the black area of the eye (cornea) gets necrosed, leading to irreversible blindness in young children.
Vitamin A also has a role in maintaining resistance of the body to common infections.
 Carotenoids are plentiful in fruits and vegetables that are green or deep yellow/orange in colour, such as green leafy vegetables, carrots, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, papaya, mango etc.

Vitamin C
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient required for healthy bones and teeth. It also
Promotes iron absorption.  Vitamin  C  deficiency  is  characterised  by  weakness, bleeding  gums  and  defective  bone  growth.
 Vitamin  C  is  abundantly  available  in fresh amla, citrus fruits, guava, banana and certain vegetables such as tomatoes.
However, it is very susceptible to destruction by atmospheric oxidation. It is for this reason that when vegetables become dry and stale or cut and exposed to air most of the vitamin C originally present in destroyed.


Every individual should consume  at least 300 g of vegetables (GLV : 50 g; Other vegetables : 200 g; Roots & Tubers  :  50  g)  in  a  day.  In  addition, fresh  fruits  (100  g),  should  be  consumed regularly.  Since  requirements  of  iron  and folic acid are higher for pregnant women they  should  consume  100g  of  leafy vegetables  daily.  High  calorie  vegetables and  fruits  to  be  restricted  for  over  weight.

How much visible fat do we need?

Adults  with  sedentary  lifestyle should consume about 25 g of visible fat, while individuals involved in hard physical  work  require  30  -  40g  of  visible  fat.

Sunday, 25 November 2012

GENERAL STUDIES IAS 2013

Project Tiger Reserves in India

 
Project Tiger
Project Tiger was launched by the Indian Government in 1973-74. The
aim of the project was to control as well as supplement the dwindling
population of the Royal Bengal tigers in the country. Under the Project
Tiger of India, specially constituted tiger reserves are being set up, which are sought to be replicas of the various bio-geographical regions of the country. The core areas of the reserves are made free of any human settlement, while the buffer areas are dedicated to 'conservation oriented' land use.

The objective behind the establishment of the Project Tiger is to
conserve the entire eco-system in which tigers live. With the
introduction of the subsequent 'Five Year Plans', the core and buffer
zones in some of the tiger reserves is being enlarged. A  number of other
steps are also being taken, including intensification of protection and eco-development in the buffer zones, creation of additional tiger
reserves and strengthening of the research activities.

Principles of Project Tiger
Each and every tiger reserve of India has been and is presently being
developed as per the following principles:

All types of human exploitation and biotic disturbance taking place in
the core area of the reserve will be eliminated.
The activities in the buffer area will be regulated.

Habitat management will be limited to only those damages that have been inflicted by humans and other interferences.

The changes taking place in flora and fauna will be monitored on a regular basis.

Continuous research will carried on in relation to wildlife. Initially, nine tiger reserves were set up under the 'Project Tiger', namely

1.Bandipur National Park (1973-74) – Karnataka
2. Jim Corbett National Park (1973-74) - Uttar Pradesh
3. Kanha National Park (1973-74) - Madhya Pradesh
4. Manas National Park (1973-74) – Assam
5. Melghat Wildlife Sanctuary (1973-74) – Maharashtra
6. Palamau National Park (1973-74) – Bihar
7. Ranthambore National Park (1973-74) – Rajasthan
8. Simlipal National Park (1973-74) - West Bengal
9. Sunderbans National Park (1973-74) – Orissa

Today the number of tiger reserves, which come under the 'Project tiger' of India, has increased to 27. In the following lines, we are providing a list of the remaining 18 tiger reserves in India, along with the extensions that were done later:
1.Periyar National Park (1978-79) – Kerala
2.Sariska National Park (1978-79) – Rajasthan
3.Buxa National Park (1982-83) - West Bengal
4.Indravati National Park (1982-83) – Chattisgarh
5.Nagarjunsagar National Park (1982-83) - Andhra Pradesh
6.Namdapha National Park (1982-83) - Arunachal Pradesh
7.Dudhwa National Park (1987-88) - Uttar Pradesh
8.Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (1988-89) - Tamil Nadu
9.Valmiki National Park (1989-90) – Bihar
10.Pench National Park (1992-93) - Madhya Pradesh
11.Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve (1993-94) – Maharashtra
12.Bandhavgarh National Park (1993-94) - Madhya Pradesh
13.Panna National Park (1994-95) - Madhya Pradesh
14.Dampha Tiger Reserve (1994-95) – Mizoram
15.Bhadra National Park (1998-99) – Karnataka
16.Pench National Park (1998-99) – Maharashtra
17.Pakhui-Nameri Tiger Reserve (1999-2000) – Maharashtra
18.Bori, Satpura & Pachmarhi Wildlife Sanctuaries (1999-2000) - Arunachal Pradesh-Assam
19.Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary Extension (1999-2000) - Uttar Pradesh
20.Nagarhole National Park Extension (1999-2000) - Karnataka

Financial Aspect
Project Tiger of India was initially started as fully central government sponsored scheme. However, since 1980-81, the expenditure is being equally shared by the central government as well as the state government. World Wild Federation has also given an aid of US $ 1 million for the project, in the form of equipments, expertise and literature.

Achievements
The adoption of Project Tiger has resulted in recovery of the deteriorated habitat and consequently, an increase in the population of tigers. From 268 in 9 reserves (1972), the population of tigers has increased to 1576 in 27 reserves (2003). At the same time, the population of other wild animals in the tiger reserves has also increased.

Management of Project Tiger
The implementation of the project is in the hands of the respective State Governments. A committee, known as the 'Steering Committee', is responsible for the administration of the project. Each reserve has a 'Field Director', who has a team of field and technical personnel. Field execution is the responsibility of the 'Chief Wildlife Warden', at the state level, and of the 'Director', at the central level.

Efforts Being Undertaken Presently
Wireless communication system and outstation patrol camps have been set up to control poaching. Relocation of villagers residing in the core areas of the reserves is being undertaken on a large scale. Live stock grazing is being controlled and efforts are being undertaken to improve the water regime as well as the ground and field level vegetations.

GENERAL STUDIES IAS 2013

NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE

National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency by Min. of Power

Current initiatives are expected to yield savings of 10,000 MW by 2012.  Building on the Energy Conservation Act 2001, the plan recommends:
Mandating specific energy consumption decreases in large energy-consuming industries, with a system for companies to trade energy-savings certificates; Energy incentives, including reduced taxes on energy-efficient appliances; and Financing for public-private partnerships to reduce energy consumption through demand-side management programs in the municipal, buildings and agricultural sectors.

National Mission on Sustainable Habitat: implemented by ministry of urban development

To promote energy efficiency as a core component of urban planning, the plan calls for:
Extending the existing Energy Conservation Building Code;
A greater emphasis on urban waste management and recycling, including power production from waste; Strengthening the enforcement of automotive fuel economy standards and using pricing measures to encourage the purchase of efficient vehicles; and Incentives for the use of public transportation.

National Water Mission: Min of water resources
With water scarcity projected to worsen as a result of climate change, the plan sets a goal of a 20% improvement in water use efficiency through pricing and other measures.

National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem: Min of Science and technlogy

The plan aims to conserve biodiversity, forest cover, and other ecological values in the Himalayan region, where glaciers that are a major source of India’s water supply are projected to recede as a result of global warming.
National Mission for a “Green India”: Min of envi and forests
Goals include the afforestation of 6 million hectares of degraded forest lands and expanding forest cover from 23% to 33% of India’s territory.

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture:

The plan aims to support climate adaptation in agriculture through the development of climate-resilient crops, expansion of weather insurance mechanisms, and agricultural practices.

National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change:
Min of Science and tech
To gain a better understanding of climate science, impacts and challenges, the plan envisions a new Climate Science Research Fund, improved climate modeling, and increased international collaboration.  It also encourage private sector initiatives to develop adaptation and mitigation technologies through venture capital funds.


GENERAL STUDIES 2013 13th FINANCE COMISSION REPORT

13th Finance Commission Report  

DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AFFAIRS
EXPLANATORY MEMORADNUM AS TO THE ACTION TAKEN ON THE RECOMMENDATIONS MADE
BY THE THIRTEENTH FINANCE COMMISSION IN ITS REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE PRESIDENT ON
DECEMBER 30, 2009
1. The Thirteenth Finance Commission (hereafter referred to as the Commission) was constituted by the President on November 13, 2007 to give recommendations on specified aspects of Centre State fiscal relations during 2010-15. The Commission submitted its report to the President on December 30, 2009 covering all aspects of its mandate.
2. The report of the Commission (hereafter referred to as the Report) covering the five year period commencing from April 1, 2010, together with this Explanatory Memorandum on the action taken on the recommendations of the Commission is being laid on the Table of the House, in pursuance of Article 281 of the Constitution. Summary of the main recommendations of the Commission relating to the sharing of net proceeds of Union taxes between Centre and States, grants-in-aid of revenue of States under Article 275, Goods and Services Tax (GST), financing of relief expenditure and roadmap for fiscal consolidation are contained in Chapter 1 of the Report of the Commission.
3. The Government has carefully examined the main recommendations of the Commission. The action to be taken on these recommendations is detailed below.
Sharing of Union Taxes
4. The Commission has recommended that for its award period, the share of States in the net proceeds of Union taxes may be fixed at 32%. The Commission has also recommended on the inter-se distribution of the States’ share amongst the States. The details of the formula for inter -se distribution and the corresponding share of each State recommended by the Commission are indicated in Chapter 8 of the Report. It has also recommended that the total transfers to the States on the revenue account be subjected to an indicative ceiling of 39.5% of the gross tax revenues of the Centre.
The Government has accepted the above recommendations of the Commission.
Grants -in-Aid of Revenues of States under Article 275 of the Constitution
5. The Commission has recommended grants-in-aid of revenues of States for non plan revenue deficit, elementary education, environment related issues, improving outcomes, maintenance of roads and bridges, Local bodies, disaster relief, GST implementation and state specific grants under Article 275 of the Constitution.
Non Plan Revenue Deficit Grant
6. The Commission has assessed the revenues and expenditure of the States for the period 2010-15 and has projected the deficit for each State after taking into account the amount of share in Central taxes for that State.
The Commission has recommended a grant of Rs. 51800 crore to meet this deficit for eight States. The amount of grant recommended for each state year-wise is indicated in Chapter 12 of the Report. The Commission has also recommended a performance incentive grant of Rs. 1500 crore for three special category States of Assam, Sikkim and Uttarakhand that have graduated out of Non Plan Revenue Deficit. The details of this grant are indicated in Chapter 12 of the Report.
The Government has accepted this recommendation .
Grant for Elementary Education
7. The Commission has assessed the requirement of providing elementary education for each State based on the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan norms and recommended to provide a grant of Rs. 24068 crore equivalent to 15% 2 of the assessed requirement. The year -wise allocation for each State and the conditionality for release of this grant are given in Chapter 12 of the Report.
The Government has accepted this recommendation.
Environment Related Grants
8. The Commission has recommended three grants under this category of Rs. 5000 crore each aggregating to Rs. 15000 crore. The first grant of each of these Rs. 5000 crore grants is forest grant, the second is for promotion for renewable energy and the third is for water sector. The year-wise allocation for each State and the conditionalities for forest and water sector grants are indicated in Chapter 12 of the Report. The eligibility of each State for the grant for renewable energy is to be decided, as indicated in Chapter 12 of the Report, based on the achievement of each state on this front in the first four years of the award period.
The Government has accepted these recommendations.
Grants for Improving Outcomes
9. The Commission has recommended six grants under this category aggregating to Rs. 14446 crore over the award period. An incentive grant for reduction in infant mortality of Rs. 5000 crore is to be released to States starting 2012-13 depending on the reduction in Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) achieved by the States with reference to the baseline level of 2009-10 figures. Grant of Rs. 5000 crore for improved delivery of justice has been recommended for Lok Adalats and Legal Aid, Alternate Dispute Resolution Centres, Heritage Court Buildings, State Judicial Academy and training of judicial officers and public prosecutors. The grant for Unique Identification (UID) programme amounting to Rs. 2989.10 crore is to be released based on the number of people covered under the UID database. Two grants of Rs. 616 crore each have been recommended for District Innovation Funds and improving statistical systems at district and State levels. Finally, a grant of Rs. 225 crore has been recommended for setting up database of employees and pensioners.
The Government has accepted these recommendations.
Grants for maintenance of Roads and Bridges
10. The Commission has assessed the requirement of ordinary repairs of roads in a State and has recommended grant of Rs. 19930 crore equivalent to 90% of the assessed requirement for PMGSY roads and 50% of the assessed requirement for other roads, for four years of the award period starting 2011-12. The allocation for each year for each State and the conditionality for this grant are indicated in Chapter 12 of the Report.
The Government has accepted these recommendations.
State Specific grants
11. The Commission has recommended grants aggregating to Rs. 27945 crore for various state specific needs of the States. The details of these grants for each item of grant for each State are indicated in Chapter 12 of the report.
The Government has accepted these recommendations.
12. For monitoring and implementation of all the above grants at the State level, the Commission has recommended setting up a monitoring committee under the chairmanship of the Chief Secretary of the State.
In addition to the grants mentioned above, the Commission has recommended grants for GST implementation, local bodies and disaster relief which, alongwith the other recommendations relating to these areas, are explained below.
Goods and Services Tax
13. The Commission has recommended a model GST structure that includes features such as single rate, zero rating of exports, inclusion of various indirect taxes at the Central and State level in GST ambit, major rationalisation of the exemption structure, etc. The Commission has recommended a grant of Rs. 50000 crore for implementation of GST as per the recommended model. This grant is to be disbursed initially in the form of compensation for loss due to implementation of GST and residual amount to be distributed amongst States in the terminal year of the award period as per the devolution formula. It has also recommended administrative structure for implementation and monitoring of this grant.
The Government has accepted these recommendations in principle. However, in view of the ongoing discussions between Centre and States on this aspect, implementation of these recommendations along with modalities may await the outcome of the discussions.
3
Local Bodies
14. The Commission has recommended a basic grant and a performance grant for local bodies. Both these grants in any year have been quantified based on a percentage of the divisible pool of the preceding year. For every year of the award period, the Commission has recommended a basic grant amounting to 1.5% of thesize of divisible pool in the preceding year. Similarly, for 2011-12 the Commission has recommended a performance grant of 0.5% of the divisible pool of the preceding year and for subsequent years in the award period, 1% of the divisible pool of the preceding year.
15. It has also recommended a separate special area basic grant of Rs. 20 per capita, carved out of the total basic grant, for every year in the award period for Schedule V and Schedule VI areas and areas excluded from Part IX and IXA of the Constitution. For these areas, it has recommended a special area performance grant of Rs. 10 per capita for 2011-12 and Rs. 20 per capita for subsequent years of the award period.
16. The performance grants are to be released if the States meet conditions specified by the Commission in
Chapter 10 of the Report.
17. As per the revenue projections of the Commission, total grant recommended for the local bodies aggregates to Rs. 87519 crore over the award period. The Commission has also recommended distribution of the grants between urban and rural areas and the inter-se distribution between States. The formula and the inter-se shares are indicated in Chapter 10 of the Report.
The Government has accepted these recommendations.
Disaster Relief
18. The Commission has reviewed the existing arrangement of financing relief expenditure in light of the Disaster Management Act, 2005 and has recommended merger of the National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) into National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) and merger of Calamity Relief Funds (CRF) into State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF) with effect from 01.04.2010 and transfer of the balances in the existing funds into the new funds.
19. The Commission has assessed the relief expenditure requirements of all States and recommended that 75% of the SDRF requirement for general category states and 90% for special category states be met by the Centre through a grant to the States. It has also recommended a grant of Rs. 525 crore for capacity building.
Overall, to meet the Central share of SDRF and for capacity building, the Commission has recommended a grant of Rs. 26373 crore. It has mandated all states to follow the required accounting practices to properly account for relief expenditure.
The Government has accepted these recommendations.
Fiscal Roadmap
20. The Commission has assessed the finances of the Union and States and specified a combined debt target of 68% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to be met by 2014-15. It has worked out a road map for Fiscal Deficit (FD) and Revenue Deficit (RD) for the award period. For Centre, it has recommended RD to be eliminated and FD to be brought down to 3% of GDP by 2013-14. For States, the Commission has worked out fiscal road map for each State depending on its current deficit and debt levels. The States are required to eliminate RD and achieve FD of 3% of their respective Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) during the Commission’s award period in stages, in a manner that all the States would eliminate RD and achieve FD of 3% of GSDP latest by 2014-15. The Commission has also recommended that the borrowing limits of the States should be fixed by the Centre in line with these targets. The Government has accepted these recommendations in principle. Detailed proposals for amendment of the FRBM Act, as may be necessary, will be taken up separately.
Debt Relief to States
21. The Commission has recommended two debt relief measures to be extended to all States. Firstly, it has recommended that the interest rates on loans from National Small Savings Fund (NSSF) to States contracted till the end of 2006-07 and outstanding as at the end of 2009-10 be reset at interest rate of 9%. The implication of this relief during the award period is estimated by the Commission to be Rs. 13517 crore. The financial implication over the entire period till the maturity of the last loan covered in this relief measure is estimated to be Rs. 28360 crore. The Commission has also recommended that structural reforms should be brought in the NSSF to make it more market linked.
22. The second debt relief recommended by the Commission is write-off of Central loans to States that are administered by central ministries other than Ministry of Finance outstanding as at the end of 2009-10. The amount of loans outstanding as at the end of 2007-08 was Rs. 4506 crore as noted by the Commission. The Commission has also recommended that any further loans under Centrally Sponsored Schemes should be completely avoided.
23. The Commission has also recommended extension of the debt consolidation facility recommended by the Twelfth Finance Commission to States that have not yet availed this benefit.
24. All the above mentioned debt relief is available to States only if they amend/legislate FRBM Acts in accordance with the recommendations of the Commission. The Commission has also recommended that the States will be eligible for the state specific grants only if they comply with this condition. With regard to the recommendation relating to interest rate reset on NSSF loans to the States, the Government has accepted it in principle. However, since the recommendations are comprehensive and cover other structural aspects like interest rate mismatch, tenor mismatch and other administrative matters, Ministry of Finance will constitute a Committee to work out detailed modalities for implementation of this recommendation.

With regard to write-off of the Central loans to States, extension of the debt consolidation scheme recommended by the Twelfth Finance Commission to States that did not avail the benefit till now, and the conditions laid down by the Commission for availing these benefits, the Government has accepted the recommendations of the Commission.
With regard to completely avoiding central loans to states in the future, action will be taken in consultation with the respective ministries.
Other Recommendations
25. In addition to the above, the Commission has made other recommendations that deal with issues including revenue and expenditure reforms at Central and State levels, accounting and budgeting reforms, additional disclosures by the Centre, State and local bodies, etc. These recommendations will be examined in due course.
26. Orders on the recommendations under Articles 270 and 275(1) of the Constitution relating to share in Union taxes and duties and grants-in-aid, respectively, will be issued after obtaining the approval of the President. The recommendations relating to re-organisation of Funds for disaster relief, debt relief to States and borrowing ceilings will be implemented by executive orders. Other recommendations of the Commission will be acted upon in due course.
New Delhi
February 25,2010
PRANAB MUKHERJEE
Minister of Finance